GRAMMAR

UNIT 5: RELATIVE CLAUSES

Habiliteu el Javascript i el Flash per veure aquest Flash video.

Relative Pronouns Level: lower intermediateLevel 2

relative pronoun use example
who subject or object pronoun for people I told you about the woman who lives next door.
which subject or object pronoun for animals and things Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?
which referring to a whole sentence He couldn’t read which surprised me.
whose possession for people animals and things Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?
whom object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who) I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.
that subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible) I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.

Relative Adverbs Level: intermediateLevel 3

A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition. This often makes the sentence easier to understand.

This is the shop in which I bought my bike.
? This is the shop where I bought my bike.

relative adverb meaning use example
when in/on which refers to a time expression the day when we met him
where in/at which refers to a place the place where we met him
why for which refers to a reason the reason why we met him

Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun? Level: lower intermediateLevel 2

Subject and object pronouns cannot be distinguished by their forms – who, which, that are used for subject and object pronouns. You can, however, distinguish them as follows:

If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used.

the apple which is lying on the table

If the relative pronoun is not followed by a verb (but by a noun or pronoun), the relative pronoun is an object pronoun. Object pronouns can be dropped in defining relative clauses, which are then called Contact Clauses.

the apple (which) George lay on the table

Exercises on Relative Clauses

Relative Pronouns and Relative Adverbs

Relative Clauses and Contact Clauses

Tests

UNIT 4 : MODAL VERBS

Wacth this video with popular songs in English and write down as many modal verbs as you can hear.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3KcSEnVnQ98

Do you know all of them?

Do you know how to use them?

Here’s some extra practice for you:

MUST HAVE/CAN’T HAVE

http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=4518

CAN/CAN’T/MUST/MUSTN’T

http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=3341

OBLIGATION

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUMLDz-Cs7A&feature=player_embedded

Online exercises

http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=2229

http://www.montsemorales.com/grammar.html

MODAL VERBS AND THEIR SUBSTITUTES

Many modal verbs cannot be used in all of the English tenses. That’s why we need to know the substitutes to these modal verbs.

Modal Verb Substitute Example
must have to I must swim. = I have to swim.
must not not to be allowed to I must not swim. = I am not allowed to swim.
can be able to I can swim. = I am able to swim.
may be allowed to I may swim. = I am allowed to swim.
need have to I need to swim. = I have to swim.
need not not to have to I need not swim. = I don’t have to swim.
shall / should/ ought to be supposed to / be expected to / be to I shall / should / ought to swim. = I am supposed to swim. / I am expected to swim. / I am to swim.

Exercise on modal verbs and their substitutes

Exercise – modal verb or substitute

Exercise on ‘must not’ and ‘need not’ (for soccer fans)

UNIT 3

KEY TO EXERCISES

extra practice

GRAMMAR SUMMARY

WILL

to talk about decisions that we make at the time of speaking.Don’t worry! I’ll help you. 

to make predictions about the future. In this use we often use will with the verbs think, hope, suppose and expect. (based on NON present EVIDENCE)

In the future nobody will be poor.

BE GOING TO + INF

to talk about future plans and intentions. I’m going to cook fish tonight.
to make predictions based on evidence. Look! It’s going to rain.  

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (be + gerund)

to talk about fixed and confirmed arrangements in the future.(usually with a time expression)

I’m meeting my girlfriend this afternoon.

PRESENT SIMPLE

For things that are scheduled.

After the linking words (TIME CLAUSES) :

when

as soon as

until

after

before

we do not use will. We use the present simple. get

FUTURE CONTINUOUS: will be + gerund

to talk about activities that will be in progress at a particular time in the future.

The plane will be landing in ten minutes

FUTURE PERFECT: will have + past participle

to talk about activities that will be finished before a time in the future.

I will have lived here for ten years next summer.

UNIT 2

A. Take a look at the pair of sentences below. Write 1 next to the action that took place first and 2 next to the one that took place later.


___ Coraline went through a purple tunnel.

___ She entered a beautiful, neat living room.

___ She smelled something good.

___ She saw her other mother cooking in the kitchen.

___ Coraline talked to her other mother in the kitchen.

___ Her father sang her a song.

___ Coraline ate some chicken.

___ She drank some mango milk shake.

___ She went to bed in a comfortable bedroom.

___ She saw and talked to her friends in the picture.

B. Now connect the sentences above using the past perfect tense for the action that took place first and the simple past tense for the action that took place later.
Ex: Coraline had gone through a purple tunnel when she entered a beautiful, neat living room.

ACTIVITIES

A. Watch the video segment and write ( 1 ) in the BRACKETS of the action that took place first and ( 2 )  in the parentheses of the action that happened later.

Ex: (  1  ) Coraline went through a purple tunnel.

Modals in songs

(  2  ) She entered a beautiful, neat living room.

(I)     (       ) She smelled something good.

(       ) She saw her other mother cooking in the kitchen.

(II)  (        ) Coraline talked to her other mother in the kitchen.

(         ) Her father sang her a song.

(III)  (        ) Caroline ate some chicken.

(         ) She drank some mango milk shake.

(IV)  (      ) She went to bed in a comfortable bedroom.

(       ) She woke up in an uncomfortable bedroom.

B. Now connect the sentences above using the past perfect tense for the action that took place first and the simple past tense for the action that took place later.

Ex: Coraline had gone through a purple tunnel when she entered a beautiful, neat living room.

I  …………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

II ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

III ………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

IV ………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

UNIT 1

Here’s some extra practice for UNIT 1 revision.

  • Remember the verb tenses for unit 1:

present simple/present continuous

present perfect simple

  • Time expressions: for, since, already, just, yet, never, ever
  • Comparatives and superlatives

You can find lots of extra exercises in this link

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