El mapa no és el territori

mapainver.jpg

Hi ha una diferència entre el món i la representació que ens en fem. Tots creem una representació del món en què vivim. És a dir, en fem un mapa, un model, que ens serveix per generar la nostra conducta. Així, cadascú de nosaltres crea un model diferent del món que compartim, i per tant, podem arribem a viure realitats diferents.

Els models que creï cadascú de nosaltres seran diferents, ja que cadascú mira a través de diferents vidres o filtres. El primer filtre el posa el sistema nerviós, a través dels sentits. El segon filtre són les ulleres de les pautes socials. I el tercer, les experiències individuals.
Dins del filtre de les pautes socials el llenguatge té un paper central: “Cada individu és a la vegada beneficiari i víctima de la tradició lingüística en què ha nascut; beneficiari en la mesura en què la seva llengua li dóna accés als registres acumulats de les experiències d’altres persones, i víctima en la mesura que la seva llengua li confirma que la seva consciència amb límits és l’única consciència, de manera que està massa ben disposat a considerar els seus conceptes com si fossin fets reals, i les seves paraules com si fossin reals”. Aldous Huxley. The Doors of Perception.

L’objectiu (nostre, del formador, de l’educador) és expandir i enriquir aquest mapa per fer que la vida sigui més rica i més satisfactòria.

Totes aquestes idees pertanyen a un llibre que he llegit aquests dies. Hi ha idees que m’han semblat molt suggerents, tot i que d’entrada, el títol, se’m feia força estrany. En “La estructura de la magia 1. Lenguaje y terapia” (1975), Richard Bandler i de John Grinder posen les bases de la PNL (Programació Neurolingüística). Basant-se en la Gramàtica Generativa i Transformacional de Chomsky, analitzen el llenguatge utilitzat entre un grup de terapèutes i els seus clients. Els resultats i les conclusions que n’extreuen fan d’aquest llibre un bon manual de comunicació humana, en qualsevol àmbit.

I tu? Des d’on et mires el mapa?

240 thoughts on “El mapa no és el territori

  1. Enric

    Hola Francina.
    Bon tema, mapa i territori,
    A tal efecte, et transcric unes línies de Gregory Bateson (“Mind and nature: a necessary unity”) sobre això:

    2. THE MAP IS NOT THE TERRITORY, AND THE NAME IS NOT THE THING NAMED
    This principle, made famous by Alfred Korzybski, strikes at many levels. It reminds us in a general way that when we think of coconuts or pigs, there are no coconuts or pigs in the brain. But in a more abstract way, Korzybski’s statement asserts that in all thought or perception or communication about perception, there is a transformation, a coding, between the report and the thing reported, the ‘Ding an sich’. Above all, the relation between the report and that mysterious thing reported tends to have the nature of a classification, an assignment of the thing to a class. Naming is always classifying, and mapping is essentially the same as naming.

    Korzybski was, on the whole, speaking as a philosopher, attempting to persuade people to discipline their manner of thinking. But he could not win. When we come to apply his dictum to the natural history of human mental process, the matter is not quite so simple. The distinction between the name and the thing named or the map and the territory is perhaps really made only by the dominant hemisphere of the brain. The symbolic and affective hemisphere, normally on the right-hand side, is probably unable to distinguish name from thing named. It is certainly not concerned with this sort of distinction. It therefore happens that certain nonrational types of behavior are necessarily present in human life. We do, in fact, have two hemispheres; and we cannot operate somewhat differently from the other, and we cannot get away from the tangles that that difference proposes.

    For example, with the dominant hemisphere, we can regard such a thing as a flag as a sort of name of the country or organization that it represents. But the right hemisphere does not draw this distinction and regards the flag as sacramentally identical with what it represents. So “Old Glory” is the United States. If somebody steps on it, the response may be rage. And this rage will not be diminished by an explanation of map-territory relations. (After all, the man who tramples the flag is equally identify it with that for which it stands.) There is always and necessarily be a large number of situations in which the response is not guided by the logical distinction between the name and the thing named.”

    Per a més texte online: http://www.oikos.org/mind&nature.htm

  2. Francina Martí Cartes Post author

    Gràcies, Enric, per la teva aportació. M’apunto a la llibreta dos noms que desconeixia fins ara: Gregory Bateson i Alfred Korzybski. Continuarem investigant!

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